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معمای نیروگاه شماره 15 - طراحی نیروگاه مقیاس کوچک
برای طراحی یک نیروگاه مقیاس کوچک متصل به شبکه سراسری چه پارامتر هایی نیاز میباشد و از چه استاندارد هایی می توان استفاده نمود؟
نویسنده : امیر - از: ایران
 
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ساعت: 12:12 - تاریخ: 27 آذر 1390
استانداردها معمولاً به کار صحه گذاری بر کارکرد و مشخصات فنی یک محصول یا فرآیندهای مهندسی انجام شده، مربوط می شوند، این کدها هستند که در مراحل مختلف طراحی بکار می روند. مبحث مورد نظر شما یعنی تولید توزیع شده یا Distributed generation از مباحث جدید و مهم شبکه های الکتریکی است. مباحثی نظیر پایداری، انطباق سیستمهای زمین ، نوع اتصال ترانسهای اینترکانکشن، حفاظتهای الکتریکی ویژه، تطبیق سطح اتصال کوتاه، هارمونیک زایی و تطبیق هارمونیکی دو سیستم و کارکرد جزیره ای از اهم موارد فنی مهم در ساخت و اتصال سیستمهای کوچک تولید انرژی به شبکه است. در این ارتباط کارگروه ویژه ای در IEEE  مسئول تدوین استانداردی به نام (P-1547) در همین زمینه است.

Standards are documents that outline the agreed-upon design and performance of a given technology, while model codes address the design, installation, and operation of materials and equipment as it relates to public health and life safety. Although standards are not automatically accepted into model codes, thousands of standards are referenced as required practice for a given installation. For example, the National Electrical Code references NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems, for buildings required to have on-site power in the event of a grid failure. A key difference between model codes and standards is that standards, and any modifications to them, are approved through a vote that involves any and all interested parties, while model code modifications are voted on solely by code officials.
Distributed power generation sources will generally be sited within the electric distribution grid. Historically, this system has been designed to accommodate a one-way electron flow from the transmission system to the load being served. Grid connection equipment for feeding into the system, therefore, was designed for megawatt-sized power plants that fed into the primary transmission lines. Such utility-grade equipment is vastly over scaled for kilowatt-sized generators and effectively impedes the introduction of grid-connected DG resources. Additionally, electric utilities have little or no incentive to allow even small-scale generators to randomly interconnect (reducing their own revenue potential and introducing uncertainty to the system).
The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) has formed a working group, SCC-21, to develop an interconnection standard (P-1547) for all DG technologies connecting to radial distribution feeders. This ambitious undertaking, headed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is expected to be complete by 2002. The issues surrounding integrated electrical power generation and distribution are outlined below.
Model codes can be adopted (although not required; state or local agencies can write their own codes) to address the design, construction, and operation of buildings and facilities. Model codes are not designed to exclude a given technology and generally focus on prescriptive solutions that allow performance-based alternatives. That said, approval of non-referenced designs is dependent upon the local code official and his comfort level with how a new product respects life safety concerns.
Model building codes were historically developed by three regional organizations that covered the northeastern (Building Code Officials and Code Administrators, or BOCA), southeastern (Southern Building Code Congress International, or SBCCI), midwestern, and western U.S. (International Conference of Building Officials, or ICBO), respectively. This regionalization led to contradictory building requirements between even adjacent local jurisdictions, driving up the cost of equipment, supplies, and building designs. In the early 1990s, the three code organizations agreed to cooperate within a single framework for national guidelines, resulting in the International Code Council
(ICC). The ICC is responsible for separate international energy conservation, fuel gas, mechanical, one- and two-family dwelling, plumbing, building, fire, and residential model codes. The three regional model code groups continue to operate, competing as service organizations (education services, plan review, etc.) to the building and code communities.
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) also develops documents in model code language that, because they are developed by a standards organization, are not considered true model codes. NFPA 70, the National
Electric Code, and NFPA 54, the National Fuel Gas Code, are relied upon heavily by local code authorities, however, and are referenced extensively in the model codes.
 
نویسنده : حمید - از: فیروزآباد فارس
 
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