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Protection Question No.16 - Restricted Earth Fault
What is the difference between earth fault & restricted earth fault?  
Please explain.
Author : T.Kailash Kumar - From: INDIA
Sat, September 13, 2008 - 10:16
Conventional earth fault protection using over current elements fails to provide adequate protection for transformer windings. This is particularly the case for a
star-connected winding with an impedance-earthed neutral.
The degree of protection is very much improved by the application of restricted earth fault protection (or REF protection). This is a unit protection scheme for one winding of the transformer. It can be of the high impedance type as shown in below figure, or of the biased low impedance type.

For the high-impedance type, the residual current of three line current transformers is balanced against the output of a current transformer in the neutral conductor. In the biased low-impedance version, the three phase currents and the neutral current become the bias inputs to a differential element.
The system is operative for faults within the region between current transformers, that is, for faults on the star winding in question. The system will remain stable for all
faults outside this zone. The gain in protection performance comes not only from
using an instantaneous relay with a low setting, but also because the whole fault current is measured, not merely the transformed component in the HV primary winding (if the star winding is a secondary winding). Hence, although the prospective current level decreases as fault positions progressively nearer the neutral end of the winding are considered, the square law which controls the primary line current is not applicable, and with a low effective setting, a large percentage of the winding can be covered.
For solidly earthed systems a restricted earth fault protection is often provided as a complement to the normal transformer differential relay. The advantage with the restricted earth fault relays is their high sensitivity. Sensitivities of 2-8% can be achieved. The level is dependent of the current transformers magnetizing currents
whereas the normal differential relay will have sensitivities of 20 -40%. Restricted earth fault relays are also very quick due to the simple measuring principle and the measurement of one winding only. The differential relay requires percentage through fault and second harmonic inrush stabilization which always will limit the minimum operating time.
Author : Hamid - From: IRAN
Sat, May 1st, 2010 - 17:53
This is the idea of GEC . Some reputable firms believe that in case of impedance grounding REF is not necessary . They say , suppose neutral point has been grounded through a resistance so that the CT ratio is 20/1 . On the other hand CT ratio of line CTs will be 2000/1. In this case for conforming of currents injected to relay you are forced to dilute the 1 Ampere in neutral  CT secondary by 100 times (in fact the ratio of 2000/1 to be made inside relay) . In this case relay is very sensitive and unstable .
Some designers advise summation (throat )CT or zero sequence CT  in line side with ratio of 20/1 . Even with this solution some instabilities have been reported .  
Author : BEHNAM - From: IRAN
Wed, February 9th, 2011 - 18:30
What is the purpose of stanby earthfault relay?. Do we need both REF and SEF in all cases?> 
Author : Sinnadurai Sripadmanaban - From: Srilankan
Thu, February 10th, 2011 - 15:43
The standby earth fault is regarded as the last line of defense. It is supplied by a single current transformer in the transformer neutral and will therefore detect all LV side faults opposite REF which allocated just for transformer; there is no need for the long time associated with the protection of the neutral earthing resistor. Also it can be use as backup of restricted earth fault protection.

Author : Hamid - From: Iran- Firouzabad in Fars
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